Basic Principle

Skin (Twacha) : Ayurvedic View

Ayurveda view about Skin
Skin care

Ayurveda view on skin care

In Ayurveda the word ‘Twacha” or “Charma” is used for skin Twacha is derived from “Twak – Samvarne” dhatu meaning the covering of the body. Acharya Charaka described Twacha as a Matrjabhava (Maternal factors), which is one of the six Bhavas essential in the development of Fetus. Achaarya Sushruta has described the process of formation of Twacha in the developing fetus. He says that after fertilization of Ovum Twacha develops just like a cream on the surface of milk. Vagbhat’a had described the formation of Twacha due to Paka of Rakta Dhatu by Rakta Dhatwagni in the developing fetus. After paka, it dries up to form Twacha just like the deposition of cream on milk over the surface of boiled milk.

 Skin Colour:

 Charaka has explained 4 normal colours of the skin as follows –

  1. Krish’n’a – Black.
  2. Shyama – Dark.
  3. Shyama avadata – Mixture of dark and pale.
  4. Avadata – also called as Gaura. White or pale red.

Aachaarya Charaka has stated that the persons with Atikrish’n’a i.e. very black or Atigaura i.e. very white are Nindita i.e. undesirable.

Factors responsible for the complexion of the skin.

Ayurveda explains the factors responsible for the formation of the particular skin complexion right from the time of the union of the Shukra and Shon’ita. Formation of the body complexion has been attributed to the Tejomahaabhoota and its association with other Mahaabhootas. Other factors are as follows –

  1. Quality of the Shukra.
  2. Diet of the mother during pregnancy.
  3. Predominant Mahaabhoota.
  4. Desha (Place) of the Person.
  5. Kula (Race) of the person.
  6. Dosha Predominance – Bhraajaka pitta is having main role in the formation of the skin complexion. It is the Dosh’a which imparts the luster to the skin and makes it radiate. The functions of the Bhraajaka pitta are – Production of the normal skin colour, Maintenance of the skin complexion by Paaka and maintenance of the normal body temperature.

Panchabhautikatwa of Twak:


Aachaarya Charaka says that all the organs are the modification of Panchamahaabhuta, so the Rachana and Kriya of these organs have been organized according to their Panchabhautika constitution. Twacha has been counted in Prithvi and Vayu dominant organs.

As Aachaarya Charaka says each and every Dravya is Panchabhautika, so according to that the Panchabhautika constitution of Twacha can be understood as follows.

Mahabhuta                                        Effect / Reason

1. Prithvi                                 Twacha has been considered as the Upadhaatu of Mamsa   dhaatu (Prithvi) that shows it is stable.

2. Jala                                      Due to the presence of Jala Mahaabhuta Twak is snigdha  and firm.

3. Agni                                    Twak has the specific Varn’a and luster which are due to  the Agni Mahaabhuta.

4. Vayu                                   Twacha is the Adhish’th’ana of Sparshanendriya hence Vayu Mahaabhuta having specific role.

5. Aakasha                              Presence of some micro channels of Sweda is indicative  of the presence of Aakasha Mahaabhuta.

Layers of the Twacha:

Description of the layers of the Twacha according to Charaka

Sl no.




Udakadhara Outer most layer of the Twak.


Asrigdhara Inner layer to the Udakadhara.


Tritiya It is Sidhma, Kilaasa Sambhava Adhish’th’ana.


Chaturtha It is Dadru, Kush’th’a Sambhava Adhish’th’ana.


Panchami It is Alaji, Vidradhi, Sambhava Adhish’th’ana


Sh’ash’th’i If this layer is injured then the individual gets Tumbling and enters in to the darkness.

About the author

Dr. Ram Mani Bhandari

Experienced holistic doctor, healer, teacher, and writer
Specialized in Ayurvedic detox (Panchakarma)
Trained in India and Nepal, the original lands of Ayurveda
Graduate in Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (B.A.M.S.) from the Institute of Medicine at Tribhuwan University in Kathmandu.
Professional member of Australasian Association of Ayurveda (AAA)
Owner of Sunshine Ayurveda

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