In Ayurveda the word ‘Twacha” or “Charma” is used for skin Twacha is derived from “Twak – Samvarne” dhatu meaning the covering of the body. Acharya Charaka described Twacha as a Matrjabhava (Maternal factors), which is one of the six Bhavas essential in the development of Fetus. Achaarya Sushruta has described the process of formation of Twacha in the developing fetus. He says that after fertilization of Ovum Twacha develops just like a cream on the surface of milk. Vagbhat’a had described the formation of Twacha due to Paka of Rakta Dhatu by Rakta Dhatwagni in the developing fetus. After paka, it dries up to form Twacha just like the deposition of cream on milk over the surface of boiled milk.
Charaka has explained 4 normal colours of the skin as follows –
- Krish’n’a – Black.
- Shyama – Dark.
- Shyama avadata – Mixture of dark and pale.
- Avadata – also called as Gaura. White or pale red.
Aachaarya Charaka has stated that the persons with Atikrish’n’a i.e. very black or Atigaura i.e. very white are Nindita i.e. undesirable.
Factors responsible for the complexion of the skin.
Ayurveda explains the factors responsible for the formation of the particular skin complexion right from the time of the union of the Shukra and Shon’ita. Formation of the body complexion has been attributed to the Tejomahaabhoota and its association with other Mahaabhootas. Other factors are as follows –
- Quality of the Shukra.
- Diet of the mother during pregnancy.
- Predominant Mahaabhoota.
- Desha (Place) of the Person.
- Kula (Race) of the person.
- Dosha Predominance – Bhraajaka pitta is having main role in the formation of the skin complexion. It is the Dosh’a which imparts the luster to the skin and makes it radiate. The functions of the Bhraajaka pitta are – Production of the normal skin colour, Maintenance of the skin complexion by Paaka and maintenance of the normal body temperature.
Panchabhautikatwa of Twak:
Aachaarya Charaka says that all the organs are the modification of Panchamahaabhuta, so the Rachana and Kriya of these organs have been organized according to their Panchabhautika constitution. Twacha has been counted in Prithvi and Vayu dominant organs.
As Aachaarya Charaka says each and every Dravya is Panchabhautika, so according to that the Panchabhautika constitution of Twacha can be understood as follows.
Mahabhuta Effect / Reason
1. Prithvi Twacha has been considered as the Upadhaatu of Mamsa dhaatu (Prithvi) that shows it is stable.
2. Jala Due to the presence of Jala Mahaabhuta Twak is snigdha and firm.
3. Agni Twak has the specific Varn’a and luster which are due to the Agni Mahaabhuta.
4. Vayu Twacha is the Adhish’th’ana of Sparshanendriya hence Vayu Mahaabhuta having specific role.
5. Aakasha Presence of some micro channels of Sweda is indicative of the presence of Aakasha Mahaabhuta.
Layers of the Twacha:
Description of the layers of the Twacha according to Charaka
|Udakadhara||Outer most layer of the Twak.|
|Asrigdhara||Inner layer to the Udakadhara.|
|Tritiya||It is Sidhma, Kilaasa Sambhava Adhish’th’ana.|
|Chaturtha||It is Dadru, Kush’th’a Sambhava Adhish’th’ana.|
|Panchami||It is Alaji, Vidradhi, Sambhava Adhish’th’ana|
|Sh’ash’th’i||If this layer is injured then the individual gets Tumbling and enters in to the darkness.|